Common Definitions and
used during data gathering activities of the
Ten-Year Industry Forecast
- 3D modeling Development of digital elevation models (DEM), development
of stereo models, and use of these in 3D modeling such as flythroughs.
- 3D Viewing Viewing data in three dimensions.
- Aero Triangulation The process for the extension of horizontal and/or vertical
control whereby the measurements of angles and/or distances on overlapping
photographs are related into a spatial solution using the perspective
principles of photography.
- Area Coverage/Theme
size The amount of landmass covered by an
image usually measured in square miles or square kilometers.
- Band-to-band registration
To register one image band to
- Bathymetry The art or science of sounding, or measuring the depth of
bodies of water.
- Break Line
Extraction The extraction of data where
the terrain changes abruptly.
- Cadastral Of or pertaining to landed property. Cadastral Surveying is
surveying having to do with determining and defining land ownership and
Self-Calibration The calibration of a
camera system to assess its focal length, principle points and radial
- Certified Data parameters compared against standards in the laboratory
or field by an independent sanctioning agency.
- Change detection The comparison of two images over a specific period of time
to detect changes.
- Characterized Data parameters compared against standards in the laboratory
- Civil Government Includes applications such as urban planning, taxation,
redistricting, water management, etc.
- Classification The process of sorting or arranging image data into
different classes, groups or categories.
Quality Color/spectral band/radiometric
quality refers to the recording of the targets brightness or intensity by the
sensor. Color refers to an image of more than one channel segmenting the
electromagnetic (EM) spectrum into bands (i.e. RGB (red-green-blue) or IRRG
(infrared-red-green)). Spectral band is a descriptor denoting a segment of the
EM spectrum. Radiometric quality is the quantification of the systems ability
to accurately record the brightness of the target despite atmospheric, sensor
and target unknowns.
- Community Growth Focuses on land use, transportation, infrastructure,
cultural and recreational resource and issues of quality of life in our
communities, i.e., business and business demographics.
- Contour Generation Mapping of lines of equal parametric value, usually of
common elevation or height.
- Contrast The difference in brightness between the light and dark
areas of an image.
- Convolution A technique used to enhance an image. Can be used to
sharpen, smooth, or detect edges in an input image.
- Cost Amount of money that a purchaser pays for remote sensing
- Create / Edit tabular
data To create or edit descriptive
information, including locations, that is stored in rows and columns and can
be linked to map features.
- Create / Edit thematic
layers To create or edit layers of related
geographic features, such as streets, parcels, or rivers, and the attributes
(characteristics) of those features.
- Crop To subset the extents of an image.
- Currentness of
data How recently the data was
- DATA The analog and/or digital raster imagery collected by active and/or
passive remote sensors. The vector content is manually or automatically
digitized or in analog form. Includes textual content as well.
- Data Format Common formats such as .tif, .jpg, .bil, and .hdf. Data
format is particularly significant when considering the compatibility of
software and the format of data products.
- Data Licensing Contractual rights outlining who can possess or use a
product, as well as how that product can be distributed.
- Data Provider A vendor who provides RS/GIS data, or the analog and/or
digital imagery collected by active and/or passive remote sensors. The data is
in relatively raw form with minor geometric and/or radiometric
Source/Heritage Is the provider of the
data and its associated metadata. Heritage specifically refers to what checks
are preformed by the data provider prior to and during collection
(calibrations in example prior, Photogrammetry or radiometric control during
collection during. It should also refer to what has been done to the data
prior to receipt by the client.
- Delivery Media
Format The configuration of or the way
data is written upon a medium (CD, zip disk, magnetic tape, etc).
- DEM Extraction Using software techniques to extract DEM's (digital
elevation models) from imagery using stereo photogrammetry techniques.
Management Encompasses natural disasters,
such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, severe weather and floods, as well as
ecological issues related to the health of human, plant and animal
- Display themes The displaying of a set of related geographic features, such
as streets, parcels, or rivers, and the attributes (characteristics) of those
- Dynamic Range The ratio of the maximum to minimum signal levels that
introduce no more than acceptable levels of signal amplitude
- Edge Matching The process of eliminating locational and content
discrepancies in the representation of features at the edges of adjacent map
sheets or tiles when joining them into one coverage.
- Elevation The height of the terrain or man-made feature above the
- END-USER A person whose job would entail working with remote sensing
data, information and/or software.
- Enhancement tools Tools used to enhance features in an image to make it more
Quality Covers both air and water quality,
and the effect of natural and man-made changes in the landscape on the
Quantification Determination of sum total
of errors in a data set.
- Feather The brightness and spatial smoothing of features associated with the
gradual transition boundary between two images.
creation Using data (i.e. terrain and
image data) to create a virtual 3D flyover.
- Geocoding The process of assigning (x, y) coordinates to data that is
not in a spatial data format.
- Geodetic Control The control with which geographic position and elevation of
features on the Earth's surface are mapped. This control incorporates
information in which the size and shape of the Earth has been taken into
account. The control points are often those whose geographic coordinates are
known to significant accuracy.
Accuracy The degree to which the
coordinates of points determined from a geospatially referenced image or
dataset agree with the coordinates determined by ground survey or other
independent higher-accuracy means.
correction The process of tying an image
to ground coordinates.
- GIS analysis tools For example, the importing of GIS layers and overlaying onto
registered imagery. Also, the use of GIS data layers for resolving solutions
from analysis of matrices of the layers.
- Governmental Units Political Boundaries
- Grab To select an area of an image for manipulation.
- Ground Sample Distance
(GSD) The representation of a pixel as
projected on the ground.
- Histories Undo /
Redo The ability to retract or protract
processes that have been run during data manipulation.
- Hydrography The scientific description and analysis of the physical
conditions, boundaries, flow, and related characteristics of the earth's
surface waters. The mapping of bodies of water.
- Hyperspectral Remote sensing imagery defined as the collection of
reflected, emitted, or backscattered energy from an object or area of interest
in hundreds of bands (regions) of the electromagnetic spectrum.
- Image Filters Filters used to obtain image information or to reduce
- Image reprojection Changing the projection of an image.
- Image-based GIS A system for capturing, storing, checking, manipulating,
analyzing, and displaying raster, textual and vector data which are spatially
referenced to the Earth.
- Imaging Working with data in a raster format, typically produced by an optical
or electronic device. Satellite data, scanned data, and photographs are common
forms of image data.
- INFORMATION Textual, vector or imagery-based data that has been fully
processed, combined, analyzed and interpreted into a geospatial product such
as a GIS.
Orientation The relative spatial position
and orientation properties of the lens and camera/sensor systems used in
- Layer manipulation
Analyzing layers of data to obtain
- Legal Issues Issues of liability, privacy, etc….
- MANAGER/SUPERVISOR A person who can (influence) (spend) (allocate) (authorize)
dollars to purchase/acquire remote sensing data, information and/or
- MANAGER/USER A person who can (influence)(spend)(allocate)(authorize)
dollars to purchase/acquire remote sensing data, information and/or software
and works with said data, information and/or software.
- Map composition Generation of hard copy output from virtual composition
including imagery, annotation, legends, charts, scale bars, and logos. The
putting together of information into a map format for printing.
- Miscellaneous Land Use - Land Cover (Polygonal), Map Reference,
Biological, Cultural, Environmental, Economic, Geophysical, Infrastructure
(Points & Lines).
- Mosaicing The process of creating a large image by merging several
smaller images. Involves blending the seam lines in the geometric sense
(warping to eliminate discontinuities) as well as in the radiometric sense (to
eliminate sudden shifts in brightness) (i.e. edge matching, feather).
Security/Defense Covers security and
defense issues on a national and global scale.
- Online internet
processing Capability of image analysis
using distant processing tools on the Internet.
- Orthoimagery Units Every pixel is made to appear as if nadir (directly beneath)
from the camera. It is made by the development and integration of a detailed
camera, sensor and target model.
- Other geo-spatial (Georegistered: Vector, Textual)
- Outline The determination of specific edges within an image (i.e. a
- Pan To move the view of the image back and forth across the image.
- Photogrammetry The uses of image data sets, vector layers, and sensor
models to make measurements of the size, height and location of objects or
landforms. As such it included the science of mapping the topography of the
Earth's surface and of locating and measuring the dimensions of objects on the
- Querying / analyzing thematic layers
(proximity analysis) To use a question or
request to select geographic features or records, and to study these features
and the relationships between them.
- RADAR An active microwave remote sensing system used for Earth resource
observations. It is based on the transmission of long-wavelength (e.g. 3-25
cm) microwaves through the atmosphere and then recording the amount of energy
backscattered from the terrain.
- Raster Input The input process for raster based data.
- Remote Sensing Remote Sensing is associated with the extraction of
information about an object without coming into physical contact with it. For
the purposes of this forecast we are restricting the definition to overhead
observation of the Earth with a major emphasis on aerospace based data
- Resize Sample To increase or decrease the size of an image.
Management Includes natural resources as
well as renewable economic resources such as agriculture, forestry, and
- Revisit Rate How often sensor passes over the same target.
- Routing The creation of themes using routes, or linear features with a
user-defined measurement system.
- Software Utility
Compatibility The ability of a software
package to be easily shared.
- Spatial modeling Image processing algorithms used to extract specific
information from image data (i.e. principle component analysis, filtering,
Fourier Transforms, and so forth).
- Spatial Resolution The level of detailed information you can gather from an
image. Ground Sample Distance (GSD) or modulation transfer function (MTF) are
measurements to characterize resolution.
resolution The frequency with which an
imaging system can capture repeat imagery of a particular target area.
- Textual Input The input process for adding text to a project.
- Timeliness of data
delivery How much time it takes you to get
your data from order to delivery.
- Transportation Roads, Airports, Railroads, Navigation.
- Vector Input The input process for vector based data.
- Views Multiple, usually simultaneous instances of looking at data from
varying angles or using varying combinations of parameters.
- Windows Common
Tools Basic Windows interface
functionality such as file management, subset or crop, grab, copy/paste, pan,
zoom, undo, redo, etc.
- Zoom To move the view of the image into and out of the image.