PE&RS September 2014 - page 828

September 2014
the Kyrgyz willingness to seek Russian protection. Even
during this period, however, the Kyrgyz occupied important
positions in the social and administrative structures of the
khanate, and they maintained special military units that
continued their earlier tradition of military organization; some
Kyrgyz advanced to the position of khan. In 1876 Russian
troops defeated the Quqon Khanate and occupied northern
Kyrgyzstan. Within five years, all Kyrgyzstan had become part
of theRussianEmpire, and theKyrgyz slowly began to integrate
themselves into the economic and political life of Russia. In the
last decades of the nineteenth century, increasing numbers of
Russian and Ukrainian settlers moved into the northern part
of present-day Kyrgyzstan. Russian specialists began large-
scale housing, mining, and road construction projects and
the construction of schools. In the first years of the twentieth
century, the presence of the Russians made possible the
publication of the first books in the Kyrgyz language; the first
Kyrgyz reader was published in Russia in 1911. Nevertheless,
Russian policy did not aim at educating the population; most
Kyrgyz remained illiterate, and in most regions traditional life
continued largely as it had before 1870.
“By 1915, however, even many Central Asians outside
the intelligentsia had recognized the negative effects of the
Russian Empire’s repressive policies. The Kyrgyz nomads
suffered especially from confiscation of their land for Russian
and Ukrainian settlements. Russian taxation, forced labor, and
price policies all targeted the indigenous population and raised
discontent and regional tension. The Kyrgyz in Semirech’ye
Province suffered especially from land appropriation. The
bloody rebellion of the summer of 1916 began in Uzbekistan,
then spread into Kyrgyzstan and elsewhere. Kazaks, Turkmen,
Uzbeks, and Kyrgyz participated. An estimated 2,000 Slavic
settlers and even more local people were killed, and the harsh
Russian reprisals drove one-third of the Kyrgyz population
into China. Following a brief period of independence after the
1917 Bolshevik Revolution toppled the empire, the territory
of present-day Kyrgyzstan was designated the Kara-Kyrghyz
Autonomous Region and a constituent part of the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) in 1924. In 1926 the
official name changed to the Kyrgyz Autonomous Republic
before the region achieved the status of a full republic of the
Soviet Union in 1936. In the late 1980s, the Kyrgyz were jolted
into a state of national consciousness by the reforms of Soviet
leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev and by ethnic conflict much closer
to home. As democratic activism stirred in Kyrgyzstan’s cities,
events in Moscow pushed the republic toward unavoidable
(Library of Congress Country Studies, 2014)
Kyrgyzstan is bordered by China (858 km) (
, May
2000), Kazakstan (1,051 km) (
, April 2010), Tajikistan
(870 km), and Uzbekistan (1,099 km) (
, December 1998).
The peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins
encompass the entire nation; the lowest point is Kara-Daryya
stream (132 m), and the highest point is Jengish Chokusu (7,439
(NGA GeoNames Search, 2014)
. “Kyrgyzstan has the world’s
largest natural growth walnut forest”
(WorldFactbook, 2011)
“After the decision of the International Geodetic Union to
connect the Indian and Russian triangulations (London, 1909),
the survey to accomplish this task started with measurement
of the base line near the town of Osh. The same year of 1909
the second order chain Osh-Alay Valley was already in work.
LTC Cheykin in 1910 extended the chain to Pamirsky Post and
in 1911 to the boundary of Afghanistan. In 1912 the baseline
of Kyzyl Rabat was measured and the connection with the
triangulation of India established. This section includes 87
stations and represents the most uniform part of the “main
chain.” The coordinates of the stations of section Osh-Beik
Pass are for “Datum NW (II) base point of the Osh Base Line
where: Φ
 = 40º 37
N ± 0.10
, Λ
 = 72º 56′ 11.175
of Greenwich ± 01.380
 = 151º 54′ 01.860
± 1.26
to SE (I)
base point and referenced to the Bessel 1841 ellipsoid where:
= 6,377,397.155 m,
 = 299.1528.
“The coordinates of Osh Datum resulted from the adjusted
chain, but because the chain was later connected with
Tashkent Observatory (Uzbekistan), should be considered as
preliminary. The relation with the coordinates of the “main
chain” is established by stations 3284 (I) Osh, NW (II) base
point-datum, 86 Beik
, and 87 Ak Turuk-Tau
for which final coordinates are published in
Geodezist 1934
, vol.
11/12, Pgs. 45 and 54. Final adjustment on Tashkent Datum for
3284 (I) Osh, NW (II) base point-datum: Φ
 = 40º 36′ 55.740
 = 72º 56′ 22.880
E. For 86 Beik
on Osh Datum:
 = 37º 19′ 09.93
N, Λ
 = 75º 04′ 24.56
E, and on Tashkent
Datum: Φ
 = 37º 18′ 48.28
N, Λ
 = 75º 04′ 35.36
E. For 87
Ak Turuk-Tau
on Osh Datum: Φ
 = 37º 17′ 43.94
N, Λ
 = 74º 59’ 55.53
E, and on Tashkent Datum:
 = 37º 17′ 22.29
N, Λ
 = 75º 00′ 06.35
E. By means of these
three stations a transformation of coordinates on Osh Datum
to Tashkent Datum is possible. The coordinates of Osh Datum
never appeared in any Russian publication because they were
computed just for the International Geodetic Union.
“In 1928 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and
the Emergency Society for German Sciences came to the
agreement to send an exploring expedition in the regions of
the Northwest Pamirs. In 1932 Dr. Richard Finsterwalder,
who was responsible for the survey and mapping, published
Scientific Records of Alai-Pamirs Expedition
. The task of
the expedition required an adequate topographical map on
which would be based the studies of the expedition after the
explorations in the field were completed. For this purpose Dr.
Finsterwalder had chosen as the most suitable the terrestrial
photogrammetric survey which for the first time found
its application at a large scale in an exploring expedition”
(Triangulation in Turkestan and its Connection with India,
Andrew M. Glusic, Army Map Service Technical Report No. 21,
February 1957, 100 pages)
“The State Geodetic Networks (GGS) of the Central Asian
countries were parts of the former USSR’s net. Its regional
part was based on the first Central Asian geodetic net realized
in 1885-1946 based on the ellipsoid Bessel 1841. The next
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